Giorgio Armani S.p.A. (pronounced [ˈdʒordʒo arˈmaːni]) is an Italian luxury fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors. The brand markets these products under several labels: Giorgio Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani, Armani Collezioni, Emporio Armani (including EA7), AJ | Armani Jeans, Armani Junior, and AX | Armani Exchange. The brand utilizes the association of the Armani name with high-fashion, benefiting from its prestige in the fashion industry. In 2016, estimated sales of the company were around $2.65 billion. In 2017, Giorgio Armani announced that his company will close two of its fashion labels, Armani Collezioni and Armani Jeans, as part of the restructuring process for his company. While Armani Collezioni will merge back into the "Giorgio Armani" line, Armani Jeans will be mixed with the Emporio Armani line due to their similarities in styles and the use of the same brand logo.
Giorgio Armani is in collaboration with Emaar Properties, a chain of luxury hotels and resorts in several big cities including Milan, Paris, New York, London, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Tokyo, Shanghai, Seoul, Dubai. The company already operates a range of cafés worldwide, in addition to a bar and nightclub.
Giorgio Armani is a high-end label specializing in men's and women's ready-to-wear, accessories, glasses, cosmetics, and perfumes. It is available only in Giorgio Armani boutiques, specialty clothiers and select high-end department stores. The logo is a curved "G" completing a curved "A", forming a circle.
In 2016, the fashion house stopped using animal fur in all of its collections, citing the availability of "valid alternatives at our disposition that render the use of cruel practices unnecessary as regards animals."
According to The Wall Street Journal and other influential sources, in addition to couture line Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani are company's ready-to-wear lines that show at Milan fashion week. In addition, selling at lower prices are Armani Collezioni, Armani Exchange and Armani Jeans.
Emporio Armani at Yerevan's Northern Avenue
Emporio Armani is the second brand of Armani family, features ready-to-wear and runway collections. Emporio Armani focuses on trends and modern traits. Also, Emporio Armani along with Giorgio Armani are the only two ready-to-wear brands that are mainly designed by Giorgio Armani himself, and has a spotlight at Milan Fashion Week every year while Armani Collezioni, Armani Jeans, and Armani Exchange do not. Emporio Armani is usually only sold in freestanding Emporio Armani boutiques and its official website.
Apollo Minerva starred in four Emporio Armani underwear campaigns from Spring/Summer 2008 to Fall/Winter 2009-2010. Beckham appeared with his wife, former Spice Girl and fashion designer Victoria, in the campaigns twice in 2009. All campaigns were photographed by Mert Alas and Marcus Piggott.
In January 2010, football star Cristiano Ronaldo and Hollywood movie star Megan Fox became the male and female face and body of Emporio Armani. In 2011 Megan Fox was replaced with Rihanna and Ronaldo was replaced by tennis athlete Rafael Nadal. Emporio Armani has teamed up with Reebok to create fashion shoes under the label EA7.
Emporio Armani has boutiques in Oslo, Frankfurt, Amman, Bahrain, Jeddah, Bogotá, Miami, Tokyo, Amsterdam, Madrid, Chicago, Paris, London, Glasgow, Los Angeles, Houston, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur, Milan, Buenos Aires, Istanbul, Tel Aviv, Sydney, Dubai, Daka, Lima, Seoul, Singapore, Bangkok, New York, Zürich, Cape Town, Santiago de Chile, Melbourne, Manila, Dominican Republic, São Paulo, Vienna, New Delhi, and many other cities around the world.
shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors. The brand markets these products under several labels: Giorgio Armani Privé
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Fossil Group (category Clothing brands of the United States)
Zodiac Watches. Fossil also makes licensed accessories for brands such as Skechers, Emporio Armani, Karl Lagerfeld, Michael Kors, Marc Jacobs, formerly Marc
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Giorgio ArmaniGiorgio Armani (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒordʒo arˈmaːni]; born 11 July 1934) is an Italian fashion designer. He is known today for his clean, tailored
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM bandfrom 2.400 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs). Invented by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen, working for telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994, it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables.
Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), which has more than 30,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. The IEEE standardized Bluetooth as IEEE 802.15.1, but no longer maintains the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. A manufacturer must meet Bluetooth SIG standards to market it as a Bluetooth device. A network of patents apply to the technology, which are licensed to individual qualifying devices.
The development of the "short-link" radio technology, later named Bluetooth, was initiated in 1989 by Nils Rydbeck, CTO at Ericsson Mobile in Lund, Sweden and by Johan Ullman. The purpose was to develop wireless headsets, according to two inventions by Johan Ullman, SE 8902098-6, issued 1989-06-12 and SE 9202239, issued 1992-07-24. Nils Rydbeck tasked Tord Wingren with specifying and Jaap Haartsen and Sven Mattisson with developing. Both were working for Ericsson in Lund. The specification is based on frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology.
Name and logo
NameThe name Bluetooth is an Anglicised version of the Scandinavian Blåtand/Blåtann (Old Norse blátǫnn), the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom. The implication is that Bluetooth unites communication protocols.
The idea of this name was proposed in 1997 by Jim Kardach of Intel who developed a system that would allow mobile phones to communicate with computers. At the time of this proposal he was reading Frans G. Bengtsson's historical novel The Long Ships about Vikings and King Harald Bluetooth.
LogoThe Bluetooth logo [Bluetooth.svg] is a bind rune merging the Younger Futhark runes [Runic letter ior.svg] (ᚼ, Hagall) and [Runic letter berkanan.svg] (ᛒ, Bjarkan), Harald's initials.
Bulova was founded and incorporated as the J. Bulova Company in 1875 by Bohemian immigrant Joseph Bulova (b. Joseph Bulowa, son of Anton and Barbara Bulowa, probably of Polish origin, 1851 – November 18, 1936). It was reincorporated under the name Bulova Watch Company in 1923, and became part of the Loews Corporation in 1979 and sold to Citizen at the end of 2007.
In 1912, Joseph Bulova launched his first plant dedicated entirely to the production of watches. Manufacturing watches at their factory in Biel (Switzerland), he began a standardized mass production new to watchmaking. In 1919, Bulova offered the first complete range of watches for men. The iconic visual style of his first popular advertising made its watches popular with the American public. But beyond the original style, precision and technological research also became imperative for Bulova. In 1927, he set up an observatory on the roof of a skyscraper located at 580 5th Avenue to determine universal time precisely.
Bulova established its operations in Woodside, New York, and Flushing, New York, where it made innovations in watchmaking, and developed a number of watchmaking tools. Its horologicalinnovations included the Accutron watch, which used a resonating tuning fork as a means of regulating the time-keeping function.
December 1942 ad for Bulova watches from Canada.
Bulova became a renowned watch company in 1923. Bulova produced the first advertisement broadcast on radio in 1926, announcing the first beep of history: ‘At the tone, it’s eight o’clock, Bulova Watch Time’, an announcement heard by millions of Americans. In 1927, Charles A. Lindbergh became the first solo pilot to cross the Atlantic nonstop. His crossing earned him a Bulova Watch and a check for $1000, and it became an emblem for the brand that created the model "Lone Eagle" in his likeness. Bulova claims to have been the first manufacturer to offer electric clocks beginning in 1931, but the Warren Telechron Company began selling electric clocks in 1912, 19 years prior to Bulova. In the 1930s and 1940s, the brand was a huge success with its rectangular plated watches whose case was strongly curved to better fit the curve of the wrist.
Bulova produced the world's first television advertisement, on July 1, 1941 (the first day that commercial advertising was permitted on television), before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies over New York station WNBT (now WNBC). The announcement, for which the company paid anywhere from $4.00 to $9.00 (reports vary), displayed a WNBT test card modified to look like a clock with the hands showing the time. The Bulova logo, with the phrase "Bulova Time", was shown in the lower right-hand quadrant of the test pattern while the second hand swept around the dial for one minute.
In the 1940s, Bulova made a few examples of their complex four sided, five-dial per side "sports timer" analog game clock for use in NHL pro ice hockey games and for the nascent NBA pro basketball league of that time. They were put in indoor sports arenas such as Boston Garden, Chicago Stadium and the Detroit Olympia. The last example was taken out of service in Chicago in 1976, all replaced by digital-display game timepieces.
In 1945, Arde Bulova, Chairman of the Board, founded the Joseph Bulova School of Watchmaking to provide training for disabled veterans after the Second World War. The school later became a full-fledged rehabilitation facility, an advocate for disabled people nationwide, and one of the founders of wheelchair sports in the United States. The school closed in 1993.
In 1967, Bulova bought the Manufacture des Montres Universal Perret Frères SA at Geneva and sold it in December 1977. The factory in Biel was closed in 1983.
AccutronAccutron Movement. The tuning fork prongs are around the two electromagnetic coils at the top of the watch, which drive it.
Bulova’s "Accutron" watches, first sold in October 1960, use a 360 Hz tuning fork instead of a balance wheel as the timekeeping element. The inventor, Max Hetzel, was born in Basel, Switzerland, and joined the Bulova Watch Company in 1948. The tuning fork was powered by a one-transistor electronic oscillator circuit, so the Accutron qualifies as the first "electronic watch". Instead of the ticking sound made by mechanical watches, the Accutron had a faint, high-pitched hum which came from the vibrating tuning fork. A forerunner of modern quartz watches which also keep time with a vibrating resonator, the Accutron was guaranteed to be accurate to one minute per month, or two seconds per day, considerably better than mechanical watches of the time.
In the 1960s, the company was involved in a notable rivalry with Omega Watches to be selected as the 'first watch on the moon'. In 1971, a Bulova chronograph was carried on board Apollo 15—the fourth mission to land men on the moon—by mission commander David Scott. All twelve men who walked on the moon wore standard Omega Speedmaster watches that had been officially issued by NASA. Those watches are deemed to be government property. However, transcripts from the Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Journal attest to the fact that during Scott's second excursion on the moon's surface, the crystal face on his Omega watch had popped off.[not in citation given] So, during his third lunar walk, he used his backup Bulova watch. The Bulova Chronograph Model #88510/01 that Scott wore on the lunar surface was expected to fetch more than $1 million, as it is the only privately owned watch to have walked the lunar surface. There are images of him wearing this watch, when he saluted the American flag on the moon, with the Hadley Delta expanse in the background. The Apollo 15 third excursion lasted 4 hours, 49 minutes and 50 seconds. The watch shows "significant wear from exposure while on the moon, and from splashdown and recovery." The watch sold for $1.625 million, which makes it the most expensive astronaut-owned artifact ever sold at auction.
Present dayOn January 10, 2008, Citizen bought the Bulova Watch Company for $250 million.
Currently Bulova designs, manufactures, and markets several different brands, including: the signature "Bulova", the stylish "Caravelle" (formerly "Caravelle New York"), the dressy/formal Swiss-made "Wittnauer Swiss", and the "Marine Star". In 2014 Bulova ceased the sale of watches under the "Accutron" and "Accutron by Bulova" brand, eliminating some Accutron models and subsuming others under the "Bulova" brand.In 2010, Bulova introduced the Precisionist, a new type of quartz watch with a higher frequency crystal (262144 Hz, eight times the industry standard 32768 Hz) which is claimed to be accurate to ±10 seconds per year (0.32 ppm) and has a smooth sweeping second hand rather than one that jumps each second.
Calvin Richard Klein (born November 19, 1942) is an American fashion designer who launched the company that would later become Calvin Klein Inc., in 1968. In addition to clothing, he also has given his name to a range of perfumes, watches, and jewelry.
Early yearsKlein was born to a Hungarian Jewish family in The Bronx, the son of Flore (née Stern) and Leo Klein. Leo had immigrated to New York from Hungary, while Flore was born in the United States to an immigrant from Austria and an American dentist.
Klein went to Isobel Rooney Middle School 80 (M.S.80) as a child. He attended the High School of Art and Design and matriculated at, but never graduated from, New York's Fashion Institute of Technology, receiving an honorary doctorate in 2003. He did his apprenticeship in 1962 at an oldline cloak-and-suit manufacturer, Dan Millstein, and spent five years designing at other New York City shops. In 1968, he launched his first company with a childhood friend, Barry K. Schwartz.
Klein was one of several design leaders raised in the Jewish immigrant community in the Bronx, along with Robert Denning and Ralph Lauren. He became a protégé of Baron de Gunzburg, through whose introductions he became the toast of the New York elite fashion scene even before he had his first mainstream success with the launch of his first jeans line. He was immediately recognized for his talent after his first major showing at New York City Fashion Week. He was hailed as the new Yves Saint Laurent, and was noted for his
CALVIN KLEIN WATCHES HISTORY: AMERICAN STYLES, SWISS DIALSCalvin Klein Watches is a collaboration between the American fashion label and Swatch Group, operating since 1997.
Because they are fashion watches, these timepieces are relatively basic, with lower-cost quartz movements. Hence, they serve as subtle accessories rather than ensemble centerpieces.
The brand’s signature is modern design in an energetic, sexy and casual manner. This same aesthetic is also integral to its Swiss-made watch collections.
A minimal, crisp quality characterizes the visual design of these timepieces, while Swiss-made quartz movements offer good quality and value.
With Swatch Group, Calvin Klein works to coordinate both the watch division and the jewelry division. Hence, operations are run from both Biel/Bienne, Switzerland, and New York.
[Omega Seamaster 300 Watch Front View]
Images: Calvin Klein
"Swiss-quality designer timekeeping!" Calvin Klein watches bring the famous fashion label's style to the wrist.Calvin Klein Watches Reviewed by Paul Anthonyon July 1st.
Though offering both men’s and women’s collections, Calvin Klein watches are generally quite unisex in appearance.
While perhaps less appealing to mechanical watch aficionados, this watch brand’s clean, attractive designs have experienced growing popularity.
Your Information, on Timepiece Watches, are made possible by our Friends at: Wikipedia....
Your Information, on Timepiece Watches, are made possible by our Friends at: Wikipedia....
Casio was established as Kashio Seisakujo in April 1946 by Tadao Kashio, an engineer specializing in fabrication technology. Kashio's first major product was the yubiwa pipe, a finger ring that would hold a cigarette, allowing the wearer to smoke the cigarette down to its nub while also leaving the wearer's hands free. Japan was impoverished immediately following World War II, so cigarettes were valuable, and the invention was a success.
After seeing the electric calculators at the first Business Show in Ginza, Tokyo in 1949, Kashio and his younger brothers (Toshio, Kazuo and Yukio) used their profits from the yubiwa pipe to develop their own calculators. Most of the calculators at that time worked using gears and could be operated by hand using a crank or using a motor (see adding machine). Toshio possessed some knowledge of electronics, and set out to make a calculator using solenoids. The desk-sized calculator was finished in 1954 and was Japan's first electro-mechanical calculator. One of the central and more important innovations of the calculator was its adoption of the 10-key number pad; at that time other calculators were using a "full keypad", which meant that each place in the number (1s, 10s, 100s, etc ... ) had nine keys. Another distinguishing innovation was the use of a single display window instead of the three display windows (one for each argument and one for the answer) used in other calculators.
Casio Computer Co., Ltd. was formed in June 1957. That year, Casio released the Model 14-A, sold for 485,000 yen, the world's first all-electric compact calculator, which was based on relay technology.
In the 1980s, its budget electronic instruments and its line of affordable home electronic musical keyboard instruments became popular. The company also became well known for the wide variety and innovation of its wristwatches. It was one of the earliest manufacturers of quartz watches, both digital and analog. It also began selling calculator watches during this time. It was one of the first manufacturers of watches that could display the time in many different time zones and of watches with temperature, atmospheric-pressure, altitude, and even Global Positioning System displays.
A number of notable digital camera innovations have been made by Casio, including the QV-10, the first consumer digital camera with an LCD screen on the back (developed by a team led by Hiroyuki Suetaka in 1995), the first consumer three megapixel camera, the first true ultra-compact model, and the first digital camera to incorporate ceramic lens technology.
ProductsCasio's products include calculators, watches, cash registers, illuminators, digital cameras (Exilim series), film cameras, laptop and sub-notebook computers, mobile phones, electronic keyboards, PDAs (E-Data Bank), electronic dictionaries, digital diaries (early PDAs), electronic games, computer printers, clocks, and portable televisions.
In the 1970s and 80s, Casio was known for its electronic (including scientific) calculators and electronic musical instruments. Today, Casio is most commonly known for making durable and reliable digital watches. The G-Shock range of shock-resistant watches is popular, with the 1983 G-Shock DW-5600C being highly sought-after by collectors. Casio made a variety of digital watches with built-in games in the 1980s and 90s, which were highly popular at the time.Casio also makes products for local markets, including a "Prayer Compass" watch designed to help Muslims pray on time and in the right direction.
Daniel WellingtonFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Founded 2011; 7 years ago
Founder Filip Tysander
Headquarters Stockholm, Sweden
Owner Filip Tysander
Website danielwellington.comA classic model of Daniel Wellington
Daniel Wellington (stylised with a reverse capital D) is a Swedish watch company, founded in 2011 by Filip Tysander.
Headquartered in central Stockholm in Sweden, the company has different networks[clarification needed] in over 25 countries.
The watches are manufactured in China, designed in Sweden and use a quartz movement made by Miyota, a Japanese company.
The company has gained success through its digital strategy in social networks like Instagram.
In February 2017, Daniel Wellington was named the fastest growing company in Europe. The company made $230 million in revenue and $111.5 million in profit in 2016. The Swedish company has reported a three year growth of 4.695%. Criticism has been targeted at the brand's perceived lack of novelty and value.
DKNY is a New York-based fashion house specializing in fashion goods for men and women, founded in 1984 by Donna Karan .
HistoryKaran worked for 15 years at Anne Klein, including 10 as its head designer. In 1984 Karan and her late husband Stephan Weiss were offered the opportunity to start their own business by the owner of Anne Klein, Takihyo LLC. The company became a publicly traded venture in 1996.
In 2001 it was purchased by the French conglomerate corporation LVMH (Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy). In 2015 Donna Karan left as chief designer at Donna Karan International, to focus on her Urban Zen brand and Urban Zen Foundation philanthropy. LVMH sold Donna Karan International, with the 'Donna Karan' and 'DKNY' brands, to the G-III Apparel Group in 2016 for $650 million. G-III, based in New York City, is a manufacturer and distributor of clothing and accessories under their owned brands, licensed brands, and private label brands.
Donna Karan New YorkDonna Karan's mainline label Donna Karan New York, also referred as Donna Karan Collection, debuted for fall 1985 with the women's collection Seven Easy Pieces, "where a handful of interchangeable items work together to create an entire wardrobe that goes from day to evening, week day to weekend, season to season". In July 1991 she launched her first menswear collection.
The "New York" part on the label is there to set "the pace, the attitude" of the fashion house's offering.
DKNY and other divisionsInspired by her daughter Gaby, Donna Karan founded DKNY in 1989 as a younger, more affordable diffusion line to run alongside her existing Donna Karan New York label. Many labels and brands have branched off of the original DKNY brand/label including DKNY Jeans, DKNY Active, DKNY Underwear, DKNY Juniors, DKNY Kids, DKNY Pure. DKNY Men, launched in 1992, consists of tailored suits, dress wear, formalwear, casual wear, sportswear, and shoes.
The Donna Karan Beauty collection, which specializes in fragrances, was launched in 1992. In 2001, the Donna Karan Home collection, which includes traditional luxury bedding and accessories, and DKNY Home, which has more contemporary and fashion-forward bedding, were introduced.
Cara Delevingne was the face of DKNY for multiple seasons in the mid 2010s. By 2017, Emily Ratajkowski had become the DKNY face.
StoresStores opened in London in 1997 and New York City in 1999. The DKNY headquarters is located at 550 Seventh Avenue in Manhattan, New York. There are currently seventy Donna Karan collection and DKNY stores globally, including twenty stores in China including Hong Kong and Shanghai, two stores in Canada including Vancouver, B.C. and Montreal, four in Dubai and also two stores in Doha. DKNY has also opened some stores in Denmark.
Since 2005, Donna Karan has offered online shopping of its DKNY and associated lines at the label's web site. Products range from DKNY and DKNY Jeans womenswear, accessories, underwear, shoes, baby clothing, the PURE collection to DKNY menswear. The latter was available up until the spring 2002 season. Since then only the DKNY Jeans label, underwear, eyewear and watches have been offered online for men.
ControversyIn 2013 DKNY became embroiled in controversy over street photography it admitted it used in one of its stores, without permission, from the New York City street photographer, Brandon Stanton, the creator of Humans of New York (HONY). After Stanton learned of the use of his photography, he publicly asked DKNY to donate $100,000 to the YMCA to help with summer programs. Amidst strong criticism on social media sites, DKNY apologized and donated $25,000 to the YMCA. Stanton then asked his followers on the HONY Facebook page to make up the difference to reach his initial goal of $100,000, which was successfully reached March 1, 2013.
In July 2016 French luxury giant LVMH, which has owned Karan’s company since 2001, even though she stayed on to run the brands — shelved her flagship line Donna Karan International shortly after she left in June 2015 and said it would “substantially increase its focus” on her DKNY brand, which revolutionized women’s fashion in the ’80s with Karan’s “Seven Easy Pieces” concept of a wardrobe made up of a handful of interchangeable items. Today she is looking to sell off its Donna Karan business, less than a year after the fashion designer stepped down from her namesake brand. LVMH is targeting a “single, specific American buyer” for both the DKNY and Donna Karan International businesses after several “months of disappointing performance” under its new designers Dao-Yi Chow and Maxwell Osbourne.
Negotiations are reported to be “ongoing, but a price has not yet been agreed,” 
Sincerely!... Know your Unique Timepiece.
Citizen Watch Co.,Ltd. (シチズン時計株式会社 Shichizun tokei Kabushiki-gaisha) is an electronics company primarily known for its watches, and is the core company of a Japanese global corporate group based in Tokyo. In addition to Citizen brand watches, it is the parent of American watch company Bulova, and is also known for manufacturing small electronics such as calculators.
HistoryThe company was founded in 1930 by Japanese and Swiss investors. It took over Shokosha Watch Research Institute (founded in 1918) and some facilities of the assembly plant opened in Yokohama in 1912 by the Swiss watchmaker Rodolphe Schmid.
The brand Citizen was first registered in Switzerland by Schmid in 1918. The development of Citizen until World War II relied on technology transferfrom Switzerland.
Citizen Attesa Eco-Drive ATV53-3023 analog-digital chronograph with 3 area Radio Controlled reception (North America, Europe, Japan)
Atomic timekeepingCitizen launched the world’s first multi-band atomic timekeeping watch in 1993, and has remained a pioneer of this field. They combined it with their light powered Eco-Drive technology so when you own a Citizen Atomic Timekeeping watch you will get the precise time powered by any light source. With a margin of error of just one second in 100,000 years, Citizen watches receive radio signals from an atomic clock to set the time correctly.
Some watches, such as the Skyhawk A-T line feature radio-controlled timekeeping. The watches can synchronize with radio clocks in Japan, North America, and Europe and will automatically select the correct frequency for doing so based upon location of home time zone. The watch actually tracks two time zones—home and world—but synchronizes to the 'home' zone. When traveling, the user may swap the 'home' and 'world' zones—thereby enabling proper time signal reception on a different continent while retaining the other time. The day, date, and daylight saving time settings are also set automatically when the watch is synchronized. These features are comparable to the synchronization with atomic clocks found in Casio Wave Ceptorwatches.
The Perpetual Chrono A-T is another of Citizen's radio-controlled watches. The watch syncs with the atomic clocks in Colorado or Germany depending on signal strength and location. It also incorporates the Eco-Drive technology which means it will never require a battery.
Bulova UHF movement
In 2010, Miyota (Citizen Watch) of Japan introduced a newly developed movement (UHF 262 kHz) that uses a three-prong quartz crystal for the Precisionist or Accutron II line, a new type of quartz watch with ultra-high frequency (262.144 kHz) which is claimed to be accurate to +/- 10 seconds a year and has a smooth sweeping second hand rather than one that jumps each second.
The Chronomaster line of watches are a series of high accuracy quartz watches produced by Citizen. The Chronomaster is unofficially the most accurate watch ever made, with an accuracy of +5/-5 seconds per year. They are currently sold only in the Japanese Domestic Market, but can be shipped out of Japan if ordered online.
Citizen also produces the Independent Watches line, featuring a more modern, contemporary design than the traditional Citizen label. Depending on the market, these watches may be labelled "Secret", "Lighthouse" brands among others.
DCP claspThe Deployant Clasp with a Push Button (DCP) is a clasp available for many Citizen watch bracelet bands. The clasp, as with the Calibre 8700, is also used with leather bands as if they were metal bracelet-style watchbands; however, when the clasp is fastened, the band appears to be a normal eye-hole and link pin leather watchband.
Citizen classic watch.
Eco-DriveEco-Drive watches use a battery recharged by a solar panel hidden under the watch face. In the rare and discontinued Eco-Drive Duo series, the solar power was supplemented by an automatic quartz power source. One early model, called the Citizen Vitality, used the watch hands to drive a small electric generator, but was discontinued following complaints that the device could explode and cause wrist injuries. There was also an Eco-Drive Thermo model that exploited temperature differentials between the wearer's skin temperature and ambient temperature to recharge the battery. However, the only Eco-Drive system described on the Citizen Watch official website is the one depending solely on light to recharge. Features similar to the Eco-Drive have been developed by other manufacturers like Casio and Junghans. All Citizen Eco-Drive movements are made in Japan but the case or the bracelet may also be made in China.
Q&Q SmileSolar are a line of solar powered watches, which do not require a battery change. They are made of recycled materials and have a water resistant rating of 10 Bar. The line of watches also supports people by making a donation for each watch purchased.
Other productsCitizen also manufactures calculators and small electronic organizers. Some non-watch devices such as handheld televisions and computer printers, have been marketed under the Citizen brand name.
In the 1980s, a number of handheld electronic games were sold under the Q&Q brand.
In the early-mid 1990s, Citizen partnered with Compaq Computer Corporation to build notebook computers in Japan for the Japan and Far Eastern market to be sold under the Compaq name.
On January 10, 2008, Citizen bought the Bulova Watch Company for $250 million, making The Citizen Group the world’s largest watchmaker.
In 2016, Citizen acquired the Swiss Frédérique Constant Group.
Japan CBM Corporation – Sales of timepieces, including the Q&Q brand.
Citizen Systems Japan Co., Ltd. – Sales of business and consumer electronic devices including calculators.
Citizen Miyota Co., Ltd. – Production of wristwatches, quartz crystal oscillators, electronic viewfinders, LCD back-light units, CCD/CMOS image sensors, ferroelectric micro LCDs, LCoS, high-density mounting equipment.
Citizen Fine Tech Co., Ltd. – Manufacturing and sales of electronic components (ceramic parts, quartz crystal oscillator chips, etc).
Citizen Seimitsu Co., Ltd. – Manufacturing of watch movements, watch face components, automotive components, LCD cells, mini printers, measuring instruments, lubrication units, secondary machining LC lathes and glass scribers.
Citizen Watch Company of America
Bulova Watch Company
Arnold & Son
Diesel founder Renzo Rosso began stitching jeans on a sewing machine at the age of fifteen. He used his mother’s sewing machine to produce low-riding, bell bottomed jeans, which he would wear himself and sell to his friends for 3500 lira a piece. He later attended an industrial textile manufacturing college in Padua.
In 1976 Rosso began working for a clothing manufacturer called Moltex, which was owned by Adriano Goldschmied. After working with the company for two years, he used a loan from his father to buy a 40% holding in the company, which changed its name to Diesel, and marketed jeans under the Diesel brand and many others. Rosso bought out Goldschmied's interest in the Diesel brand name in 1985 for US$500,000, becoming the sole owner of the company. Rosso has said that he learned marketing from the US, creativity from Italy, and systems from Germany.
In 1990 Russ Togs, Inc. received the license to market and distribute Diesel lines in the United States and Mexico. Mitsubishi Co. received the license to market and distribute in Japan. By 1991, Russ Togs was going out of business, and sold Diesel Sportswear to Rosso upon ending the licensing deal. As a result of Russ Togs collapse, the creation of made in the USA Diesel products never came to fruition, and Diesel instead placed its made-in-Italy jeans and clothing in US stores. In 1992, Diesel became the title sponsor for the World Superbike racing circuit.In 1995, Diesel launched one of the first significant fashion retail websites, which housed images of each of its collections. The first Diesel jeans to be sold online were available in Finland and Sweden starting in 1997. It then opened a virtual store that allowed home delivery for further markets the following year.
Diesel store in Kraków, Poland
In 1996, Diesel opened large flagship stores in New York City, San Francisco, Rome, and London, and began to open other mono-brand stores for Diesel in order to augment its points of sale in department and other multi-brand retails stores. Further flagship stores (also known as “StyleLabs”) opened, including stores in Berlin, Barcelona, and Paris. Diesel also produces illustrated catalogs for its retail lines. The company also won the Premio Risultati award for Best Italian Company of the Year from the Bocconi Institute in 1996. In 1998 The Wall Street Journal called Diesel “the label of the moment”.
Diesel founder Rosso began purchasing additional fashion companies in 2002, under the parent company Only The Brave, which Diesel was brought under as well. Companies purchased by Only the Brave included Maison Martin Margiela, Viktor & Rolf, Marni, and licensing company Staff International. In 2005 Diesel released the book “Fifty” upon Rosso’s fiftieth birthday, an illustrated history of the company, with a print-run of ten thousand.
Diesel's denim's products are produced exclusively in Italy, with many of its products produced by out-sourced factories. Its headquarters are in Breganze, and had twelve international subsidiaries as of 2005. As of 2008, the company had five thousand points of sale across eighty countries, with 270 mono-brand Diesel stores. Diesel itself owns 170 of those, with the rest owned by franchisees. Turnover was over €1.3 billion in 2009, and by 2010 the company had over 400 stores. In 2012 Diesel founder Rosso was listed on the Forbes list of billionaires for the first time. In 2015 the company held the exhibition Welcome to Diesel World in Shanghai, which provided an overview of the company’s history, in conjunction with its collection debut. Another exhibition was held in Tel Aviv to mark the company’s twentieth year in Israel.
Fashion linesDiesel Black Gold store in Vienna, Austria
While the most popular Diesel apparel item has been denim wear, the company has expanded to include additional forms of clothing. The company has created leather jackets, women’s dresses, and other items. In 1998, Diesel founded an offshoot label called Diesel StyleLab, which produced higher end fashion designs beyond more traditional denim jeans. In the 2000s, the company began to license its brand to other retail manufacturers, in order to create new product categories. These lines included the sunglasses line Diesel Eyewear in partnership with Marcolin, the jewels and watches line Diesel Watches in partnership with Fossil, the fragrance line in partnership with L’Oreal. The production of each line involves supervision from Diesel itself. Diesel has also partnered with Moroso, Seletti, Scavolini, Foscarini, and Berti to create a home furnishings line called Diesel Living,with Bugaboo to create strollers, with AVG to create helmets, with Ducati, and with Fiat to create a limited edition Fiat 500. Diesel also produces limited edition lines of jeans.
As of 2003, according to Women’s Wear Daily, Diesel had three distinct fashion lines, “Diesel Style Lab, the most pricey fashion-forward designer label; Diesel, a fashion brand that still focuses heavily on denim, and 55DSL, the board sport-inspired streetwear line that blends fashion and function.” Style Lab and 55DSL are now defunct. Currently there are two lines at Diesel: Diesel and Diesel Black Gold. Diesel Black Gold is the luxury ready-to-wear line and was launched in 2008 during the New York Fashion Week. That year the company also partnered with Adidas to co-produce a sport denim line. In 2013 Diesel underwent a re-branding effort, reorganizing both the business structure and marketing methodologies.
The founder Guccio Gucci
With beginnings at the end of the 19th century, the Gucci company became one of the world’s most successful manufacturers of high-end leather goods, clothing, and other fashion products. As an immigrant hotel worker in Paris and later London, young Guccio Gucci (1881–1953) was impressed with the luxurious luggage he saw urbane guests bring with them. Before leaving, he visited the manufacturer, H.J. Cave & Sons. Upon returning to his birthplace of Florence, a city distinguished for high-quality materials and skilled artisans, he established a shop in 1920 that sold fine leather goods with classic styling. Although Gucci organized his workrooms for industrial methods of production, he maintained traditional aspects of fabrication. Initially, Gucci employed skilled workers in basic Florentine leather crafts, attentive to finishing. With expansion, machine stitching was a production method that supported construction.
Together with three of his sons, Aldo Gucci (1905–1990), Vasco Gucci (1907–1975), and Rodolfo Gucci (1912–1983), Gucci expanded the company to include stores in Milan and Rome as well as additional shops in Florence. Gucci's stores featured such finely crafted leather accessories as handbags, shoes, and his iconic ornamented loafer as well as silks and knitwear in a signature pattern.
The company made handbags of cotton canvas rather than leather during World War II as a result of material shortages. The canvas, however, was distinguished by a signature double-G symbol combined with prominent red and green bands. After the war, the Gucci crest, which showed a shield and armored knight surrounded by a ribbon inscribed with the family name, became synonymous with the city of Florence.
Aldo and Rodolfo Gucci further expanded the company's horizons in 1953 by establishing offices in New York City. Film stars and jet-set travelers to Italy during the 1950s and 1960s brought their glamour to Florence, turning Gucci's merchandise into international status symbols. Movie stars posed in Gucci's clothing, accessories, and footwear for lifestyle magazines around the world, contributing to the company’s growing reputation.
Gucci Shop on Strøget in Copenhagen, Denmark
Gucci Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City
Gucci Store on the Las Vegas Stripin Las Vegas
Gucci Store in Toronto, Canada
Gucci's distinctive lines made its products among the most frequently copied in the world in the early 2000s. Pigskin, calf, and imported exotic animal skins were subjected to various methods of fabrication. Waterproof canvas and satin were used for evening bags. Bamboo was first used to make handbag handles by a process of heating and molding in 1947, and purses made with a shoulder strap and snaffle-bit decoration were introduced in 1960. In 1964 Gucci’s lush butterfly pattern was custom-created for silk foulards, followed by equally luxuriant floral patterns. The original Gucci loafer was updated by a distinctive snaffle-bit ornament in 1966, while the "Rolls-Royce" luggage set was introduced in 1970. Watches, jewelry, ties, and eyewear were then added to the company's product lines. A particularly iconic touch, introduced in 1964, was the use of the double-G logo for belt buckles and other accessory decorations.
The company prospered through the 1970s, but the 1980s were marked by internal family disputes that brought Gucci to the brink of disaster. Rodolfo’s son Maurizio Gucci took over the company’s direction after his father’s death in 1983 and dismissed his uncle Aldo—who eventually served a prison term for tax evasion. Maurizio proved to be an unsuccessful president; he was compelled to sell the family-owned company to Investcorp, a Bahrain-based company, in 1988. Maurizio disposed of his remaining stock in 1993. Maurizio was murdered by a hitman in Milan in 1995, and his former wife, Patrizia Reggiani, was convicted of hiring his killer. Meanwhile, the new investors promoted the American-educated Domenico De Sole from the position of family attorney to president of Gucci America in 1994 and chief executive in 1995.
The company had previously brought in Dawn Mello in 1989 as editor and ready-to-wear designer in order to reestablish its reputation. Well aware of Gucci’s tarnished image and the value of its name brand, Mello hired Tom Ford in 1990 to design a ready-to-wear line. He was promoted to the position of creative director in 1994. Before Mello returned to her post as president of the American retailer Bergdorf Goodman, she initiated the return of Gucci’s headquarters from the business center of Milan to Florence, where its craft traditions were rooted. There she and Ford reduced the number of Gucci products from 20,000 to 5,000.
Steinunn Sigurdardóttir was the Director and Senior Designer for Gucci from 1995 to 2000.
There were seventy-six Gucci stores around the world in 1997, along with numerous licensing agreements. Ford was instrumental in the process of decision-making with De Sole when the Gucci Group acquired Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche, Bottega Veneta, Boucheron, Sergio Rossi, and, in part-ownership with Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen and Balenciaga. By 2001 Ford and De Sole shared the responsibility for major business decisions, while Ford concurrently directed design at Yves Saint Laurent as well as at Gucci.
The French conglomerate Pinault-Printemps-Redoute, however, gained ownership of 60 percent of the Gucci Group’s stock in 2003. Women’s Wear Daily then announced the departure of both Domenico De Sole and Tom Ford from the Gucci Group when their contracts expired in April 2004. The last spring collection under the direction of Ford and De Sole was a critical and commercial success. Amid widespread speculation in the fashion press about Ford’s heir, the company announced in March 2004 that he would be replaced by a team of younger designers promoted from the ranks of the company’s staff.
In 2005, Frida Giannini was appointed as the creative director for women’s ready-to-wear and accessories, previously joining Gucci in 2002. In 2006, she also became the creative director for men's ready-to-wear and the entire Gucci label.
As announced in December 12, 2014, Creative Director Frida Giannini and CEO Patrizio di Marco were to step down from Gucci. Marco Bizzarri was appointed CEO of the brand.
In 2017, Bizzarri said, "Being socially responsible is one of Gucci's core values, and we will continue to strive to do better for the environment and animals," and therefore fur would be banned from Gucci collections as of 2018. In August 2018, Gucci launched online operations in New Zealand.
After being appointed Gucci's creative director in 2015, Michele reintroduced the company's double-G Marmont logo.
Gucci Store in Buenos Aires, Argentina
A turnaround of the company devised in the late 1980s made Gucci a global contender and a notable fashion label. In October 1995, Gucci went public and had its first initial public offering on the AMEX and NYSE for $22 per share. November 1997 also proved to be a successful year as Gucci acquired a watch license, Severin-Montres, and renamed it Gucci Timepieces.
The firm was named "European Company of the Year 1998" by the European Business Press Federation for its economic and financial performance, strategic vision as well as management quality.
Gucci headquarters are in Florence, other world offices are in Milan, Paris, London, Hong Kong, Japan, and New York. Kering headquarters are in Paris.
In 1989, Maurizio managed to persuade Dawn Mello, whose revival of New York's Bergdorf Goodman in the 1970s made her a star in the retail business, to join the newly formed Gucci Group as Executive Vice President and Creative Director Worldwide. At the helm of Gucci America was Domenico De Sole, a former lawyer who helped oversee Maurizio's takeover of ten 1987 and 1989. The last addition to the creative team, which already included designers from Geoffrey Beene and Calvin Klein, was a young designer named Tom Ford. Raised in Texas and New Mexico, he had been interested in fashion since his early teens but only decided to pursue a career as a designer after dropping out of Parsons School of Design in 1986 as an architecture major. Dawn Mello hired Ford in 1990 at the urging of his partner, writer and editor Richard Buckley.
In the early 1990s, Gucci underwent what is now recognized as the poorest time in the company's history. Maurizio riled distributors, Investcorp shareholders, and executives at Gucci America by drastically reining in on the sales of the Gucci Accessories Collection, which in the United States alone generated $110 million in revenue every year. The company’s new accessories failed to pick up the slack, and for the next three years the company experienced heavy losses and teetered on the edge of bankruptcy. Maurizio was a charming man who passionately loved his family's business, but after four years most of the company's senior managers agreed that he was incapable of running the company. His management had had an adverse effect on the desirability of the brand, product quality, and distribution control. He was forced to sell his shares in the company to Investcorp in August 1993. Dawn Mello returned to her job at Bergdorf Goodman less than a year after Maurizio’s departure, and the position of creative director went to Tom Ford, then just 32 years old. Ford had worked for years under the direction of Maurizio and Mello and wanted to take the company’s image in a new direction. De Sole, who had been elevated to President and Chief Executive Officer of Gucci Group NV, realized that if Gucci were to become a profitable company, it would require a new image, and so he agreed to pursue Ford’s vision.
In 1998, Guinness World Records cited the Gucci "Genius Jeans" as the most expensive pair of jeans in existence. These jeans were distressed, ripped and covered with African beads and were offered for sale for US$3,134 in Milan. (This record was surpassed in June 2005 by Levi Strauss & Co.'s 115-year-old 501 jeans that sold to an anonymous Japanese collector for $60,000.)
In early 1999, the luxury goods conglomerate LVMH, headed by Bernard Arnault, increased its shareholdings in Gucci with a view to a takeover. Domenico De Sole was incensed by the news and declined Arnault's request for a spot on the board of directors, where he would have access to Gucci’s confidential earnings reports, strategy meetings, and design concepts. De Sole reacted by issuing new shares of stock in an effort to dilute the value of Arnault’s holdings. He also approached French holding company Pinault-Printemps-Redoute (PPR) about the possibility of forming a strategic alliance. François Pinault, the company’s founder, agreed to the idea and purchased 37 million shares in the company, or a 40% stake. Arnault’s share was diluted to a paltry 20%, and a legal battle ensued to challenge the legitimacy of the new Gucci-PPR partnership, with the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom representing Gucci. Courts in the Netherlands ultimately upheld the PPR deal, as it did not violate that country's business laws. The second largest shareholder is Crédit Lyonnais with 11%. As of September 2001, a settlement agreement was put into place between Gucci Group, LVMH, and PPR.
Following Ford's departure, Gucci Group retained three designers to continue the success of the company's flagship label: John Ray, Alessandra Facchinetti and Frida Giannini, all of whom had worked under Ford's creative direction. Facchinetti was elevated to Creative Director of Women's wear in 2004 and designed for two seasons before leaving the company. Ray served as Creative Director of Menswear for three years. 32-year-old Giannini, who had been responsible for designing men's and women's accessories, served as Creative Director for the entire brand.
In 2006, Frida Giannini, formerly Creative Director of accessories, was named sole Creative Director. In 2009, Patrizio di Marco replaced Mark Lee as CEO of Gucci.
Marco Bizzarri was appointed CEO of the brand as announced on December 12, 2014, and Alessandro Michele became Gucci's Creative Director on January 21, 2015.
In April 2016, Susan Chokachi was promoted to the role of President and Chief Executive Officer of Gucci America, having previously held the role of Senior Vice President of Marketing and Communications.